At the end of the 18th century, claims for women's rights focused on equality and education. Only in the 19th century women’s claims the recognition of the right to vote for women and, in the 20th century, this right was extended to Latin American countries. At the end of the Second World War, the United Nations established the Commission on the Status of Women, which promotes gender equality and the empowerment of women. Likewise, since the 60s the women's movement received the name of "feminism" to claim their rights in the political sphere.
From the 80's, a differential use of sex-gender concepts is introduced into women's studies. On one hand, sex is based on biological, anatomical and physiological issues and, on the other hand, gender refers to the participation and active social experiences of the subjects. That is, gender, by including the social construction of individuals goes beyond the characteristics of sex.
In this sense, gender and sex allow the inclusion of Lesbian, Gay, Trans, Bisexual and Intersex (LGTBI) people, who have historically been subjected to discrimination, violence, persecution and other abuses due to their sexual orientation, gender identity and expression, and physical diversity. The foregoing constitutes a clear violation of the human rights protected in international and Inter-American legal instruments.
Different actors of the Inter-American System for the Protection of Human Rights point out that the systemic problems faced by LGBTI people in the region include criminalization, high rates of violence, discrimination in access to health, justice, education, work and political participation, as well as the exclusion and invisibility of these violations
In 2011, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights gave special thematic emphasis to the rights of LGTBI when designing a strategic plan –Plan of Action 4.6.i– and stablished a specialized unit within its Executive Secretariat. Likewise, in 2014 the Rapporteurship on the Rights of Lesbian, Gay, Trans, Bisexual and Intersex Persons entered into operation, giving continuity to the aforementioned unit and including issues of sexual orientation, gender identity and expression, and physical diversity.